Kazakhstan is rich in oil and minerals. Production of oil including gas condensate reached 70.6 million tons in 2008, net oil exports accounted for 62.8 million tons. Kazakh gas production in 2008 reached 33.5 billion cubic meters, net gas exports accounted 5.6 billion cubic meters. Kazakhstan holds about 32.5 billion barrels of proven recoverable oil reserves and 3 trillion cubic meters of gas.
Industry analysts believe that a planned increase in oil production and the development of new oil fields will enable Kazakhstan to produce as much as 3 million barrels (477,000 m³) per day by 2015, lifting the country into the ranks of the world's top 10 oil-producing nations. Major oil and gas fields and their recoverable oil reserves are Tengiz with 7 billion barrels (1.1 km³); Karachaganak with 8 billion barrels (1.3 km³) and 1,350 km³ of natural gas; and Kashagan with 7 to 9 billion barrels (1.1 to 1.4 km³).
Kazakhstan has an abundant supply of accessible mineral and fossil fuel resources. Development of petroleum, natural gas, and mineral extraction has attracted most of the $40 billion foreign investment in Kazakhstan since 1993 and accounts for some 57% of the nation's industrial output (approximately 13% of GDP). According to estimates, Kazakhstan has the second largest uranium, chromium, lead, and zinc reserves, the third largest manganese reserves, the fifth largest copper reserves, and ranks in the top ten for coal, iron, and gold. Kazakhstan also exports diamonds.
Agriculture accounted for 5.9 billion US$ of Kazakhstan's GDP in 2007. Grain (Kazakhstan is the sixth-largest producer in the world) and livestock are the most important agricultural commodities. Around 74% of the country's territory is suitable for agricultural production, 20% of the labour force works in the agricultural sector. Traditionnally, stockbreeding is the dominant agricultural activity. Chief livestock products are dairy products, leather, meat, and wool. The country's major crops include wheat, barley, cotton, and rice. Wheat exports, a major source of hard currency, rank among the leading commodities in Kazakhstan's export trade. By November 2008 Kazakhstan exported around 4.7 mln. tons of wheat. Other agricultural products include fruit and wine. Kazakh agriculture still has many environmental problems from mismanagement during its years in the Soviet Union.